The Imams (peace be upon them) inherit the knowledge of the unseen from the Holy Prophet (peace be upon him and his holy progeny)

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عَنْ سَيْفٍ‏ التَّمَّارِ قَالَ: كُنَّا مَعَ اَبِي عَبْدِ اللهِؑ جَمَاعَةً مِنَ الشِّيعَةِ فِي الْحِجْرِ فَقَالَ عَلَيْنَا عَيْنٌ فَالْتَفَتْنَا يَمْنَةً وَ يَسْرَةً فَلَمْ نَرَ اَحَداً فَقُلْنَا لَيْسَ عَلَيْنَا عَيْنٌ قَالَ وَ رَبِّ الْكَعْبَةِ وَ رَبِّ الْبَيْتِ ثَلَاثَ مَرَّاتٍ لَوْ كُنْتُ بَيْنَ مُوسٰى وَ الْخَضِرِ لَاَخْبَرْتُهُمَا اَنِّي اَعْلَمُ مِنْهُمَا وَ لَاَنْبَاْتُهُمَا بِمَا لَيْسَ فِي اَيْدِيهِمَا لِاَنَّ مُوسَى وَ الْخَضِرَ اُعْطِيَا عِلْمَ مَا كَانَ وَ لَمْ يُعْطَيَا عِلْمَ مَا هُوَ كَائِنٌ اِلٰى يَوْمِ الْقِيَامَةِ وَ اِنَّ رَسُولَ اللهِ ﷺ اُعْطِيَ عِلْمَ مَا كَانَ وَ مَا هُوَ كَائِنٌ اِلٰى يَوْمِ الْقِيَامَةِ فَوَرِثْنَاهُ مِنْ رَسُولِ اللهِ ﷺ وِرَاثَةً.

Saif al-Tammaar reports, “We – a group of Shiites – were with Imam Abu Abdillah (al-Sadeq a.s.) in the Hijr (of Ismaaeel a.s.) when he (peace be upon him) informed us,

‘We are being watched (i.e. spied upon).’ So, we looked right and left but could not see anybody and said, ‘Nobody is watching us.’ He (peace be upon him) swore thrice, ‘By the Lord of the Ka’bah and by the Lord of the House! Had I been between (Prophet) Moosa (peace be upon him) and al-Khizr (peace be upon him), I would have certainly informed both of them since I am more knowledgeable than them and would have told them what they knew not. For, Moosa (peace be upon him) and al-Khizr (peace be upon him) were given the knowledge of the past but they were not given the knowledge of what will occur till the Day of Resurrection. Surely, the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him and his holy progeny) was given the knowledge of the past and what will occur till the Day of Resurrection and we have inherited from the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him and his holy progeny) as inheritance’.”

References:

1.    Basaaer al-Darajaat, vol. 1, p. 129, Chapter 7, H. 1

2.    Behaar al-Anwaar, vol. 26, p. 111, H. 9

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